[ PARAMETERS ]
i) sampling_rate - Measured in uS , this is how often the kernel look at the CPU usage and make decisions on what to do about the frequency. Higher values means CPU polls less often. For lower frequencies, this could be considered an advantage since it might not jump to next frequency very often, but for higher frequencies, the scale-down time will be increased.
ii) up_threshold - Measured in percentage 1-100, When CPU load reaches this point, governor will scale CPU up. Higher value means less responsiveness and lower values corresponds to more responsiveness at the cost of battery.
iii) powersave_bias - Default value is 0. Setting a higher value will bias the governor towards lower frequency steps. Use this if you want CPU to spend less time on higher frequencies. A better alternative would be to underclock to a lower frequency than using powersave bias.
iv) sampling_down_factor - In the simplest form, sampling_down_factor determines how often CPU should stay at higher frequencies when truly busy. Default behavior is fast switching to lower frequencies (1). Having sampling_down_factor set to 1 makes no changes from existing behavior (for the non-modified ondemand), but having sampling_down_factor set to a value greater than 1 causes it to act as a multiplier for the scheduling interval for re-evaluating the load when the CPU is at its highest clock frequency (which is scaling_max_freq) due to high load. This improves performance by reducing the overhead of load evaluation and helping the CPU stay at its highest clock frequency when it is truly busy, rather than shifting back and forth in speed. This tunable has no effect on behavior at lower frequencies/lower CPU loads.
v) down_differential - This factor indirectly calculate the 'down-threshold' of Ondemand. After completing sampling-down-factor*sampling-rate at max frequency because of high load, governor samples the load again to calculate an estimate of the new target frequency in a way that the lowest frequency will be chosen that would not trigger up_threshold in the next sample. Because triggering up-threshold will again cause CPU to scale up to max frequency. During this choice down_differential is taken into account as a breathing room value. Target frequency is calculated as max_load_freq / (up_threshold - down_differential). The obtained value might be a non-existent value in the freq_table and CPU driver will round it off to a value in freq_table. max_load_freq is the theoretical frequency at which CPU can handle 100% workload. It is usually a value below scaling_max_freq. See this post by AndereiLux for more info.
vi) freq_step - Whenever up-scaling logic is triggered the governor instructs the CPU to raise its frequency by freq_step percentage of max allowed frequency. (max policy * (freq step / 100)). Ex: max policy is 1600 and freq step 21%, it will scale 1600 * 21% = 336. We have a 100MHz grained frequency table so it rounds up to the next 100MHz, hence 336 becomes 400. So say we're idling at 200MHz and the up-scaling logic gets triggered with the above settings, the next frequency will be 600MHz. Note that freq_step and smooth_scaling does pretty much the same thing.